With Tom Bethell’s characterization of darwinism as a tautology and the Milton Keynes bug I some how deviated from my original goal which is commenting the quotations used by Jean Staune in his paper. There are a few ones that are worth commenting, so I will finish with that part.
Roberto Fondi, paleontologist, Professor at the University of Sienna, defends an “ organicist ” position which he defines as follows:
« the whole is more than the sum of the parts. Totality determines the nature of the parts. One cannot understand these parts as long as they are considered separately, without reference to the whole. The parts are dynamically connected between them in a ceaseless interaction and an interdependence. Consequently, the analytical approach, mechanist and atomistic, characteristic of traditional Newtonian physics, prove inadequate to understand Life as a whole, or in its various animal or vegetable expressions «
« the whole is more than the sum of the parts », sometimes that’s true, it’s called synergy, some times it’s wrong: when the whole is less than the sum of the parts, it’s antagonism and if it’s equal, then it’s indifference. The whole isn’t always more than the sum of the parts! I suspect that professor Fondi is aware of that.
The last sentence of the quote seems to be a conclusion driven by the fact that « The parts are dynamically connected between them in a ceaseless interaction and an interdependence. » But there is nothing here showing that « Consequently, the analytical approach, mechanist and atomistic, […] prove inadequate to understand Life as a whole… ». I would expect him to say the contrary, that by understanding the mechanisms governing interactions and interdependencies, one progressively build a model allowing to understand life as a whole, including synergistic and antagonistic effects.